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Autokrator: Greek equivalent of the Latin imperator, emperor, used especially after the 7th centu...
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Egyptian population who spoke the Coptic language; after Egypt’s mid-seventh-century conquest by ...
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Uzes:A branch of the Oghuz confederation of Turkic-speaking peoples; ousted the Pechenegs from th...
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Diadem: originally a head-band, then imperial Roman symbol of majesty from the fourth century on;...
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Augustus (m.), Augusta (f.) senior emperor within a group of coemperors, or within a single famil...
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Circus factions: associations that staged circus games; fervent supporters’ associations of one o...
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Exarchate: territorial and administrative unit commanded by an exarch; in modern usage, often the...
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Greek fire: Devastating and dreaded Byzantine petroleum-based weapon; it was sticky, was ignited ...
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Demesne: Western form of land tenure, referring to the lands retained by a lord for his own use (...
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Hexagram: Silver coin introduced by Heraclius, lit. “six grams,” 12 to a nomisma. Although issued...
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Genikon Logothesion: The general treasury and main fiscal department of government after the seve...
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Normans: people from north-west France, originally of Scandinavian origin; in the eleventh centur...
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Aktemon: A peasant with no property, no oxen or plough.
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Alloy containing silver and gold in a Byzantine coin.
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Nomisma: Lat. solidus, the gold coin introduced by Constantine I which remained the basis for the...
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Diocese: Lat. dioecesa, Gk. Dioikêsis, an administrative unit consisting of several provinces; fr...
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Roga: Originally a salary paid monthly, quarterly, or annually; from at least the 9th century als...
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Thema: A “theme,” from the early 9th century the technical term for the district across which sol...
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Ecumenical councils: (from oikoumenikos, ‘worldwide’) conferences of the bishops of the whole chu...
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Danishmend: Turkoman dynasty that ruled over Cappadocia, Sebasteia and Melitene from late elevent...
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