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Exarchate: territorial and administrative unit commanded by an exarch; in modern usage, often the...
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despot (despot ¯ es) ‘lord, master’: High imperial title in the Palaiologan period, generally res...
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Vlachs: Romance-language-speaking pastoral inhabitants of eastern and south-eastern Europe, desce...
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Stratiotes: A soldier; by derivation from the 10th century a holder of “military” land, subject t...
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tribunus (s.), tribuni (pl.): term for indigenous local rulers in southern Italy, which fell out ...
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Confraternity: A group of laymen, clerics, and monks linked to monasteries and formed to honor pa...
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Davidic of or pertaining to David, king of Israel, or to his family
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A type of annuity administered by monasteries which provided (elderly) laity with a regular allot...
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Zealots: strongly iconophile monks in the late eighth to tenth century; midfourteenth century gro...
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Oikonomos: The financial officer of a large church monastery, responsible for the management of i...
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Ecumenical councils: (from oikoumenikos, ‘worldwide’) conferences of the bishops of the whole chu...
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Caesar: Title given to a junior emperor or – from the eleventh century onwards – to imperial rela...
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Hexagram: Silver coin introduced by Heraclius, lit. “six grams,” 12 to a nomisma. Although issued...
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Codex Justinianus: Codification of Roman law produced at the beginning of the reign of Justinian ...
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Praetorian Prefecture: The largest administrative unit of the empire from the time of Constantine...
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Psychika: Gifts made to monasteries in exchange for the monks’ commemoration of the donors and/or...
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Augustus (m.), Augusta (f.) senior emperor within a group of coemperors, or within a single famil...
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Khazars: Turkic-speaking people who were the major power in the Black Sea steppes, with centres o...
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Ducat: Two types of coin from the duchy of Venice: (1) the thirteenthand early fourteenth-century...
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Turkmen (Turkoman, Turcoman): Turkish nomadic tribesmen from Central Asia who streamed into Anato...
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