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Diadem: originally a head-band, then imperial Roman symbol of majesty from the fourth century on;...
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Kommerkiarioi: Fiscal officials responsible for state-supervised commerce and the taxes thereon. ...
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Opsikion: one of the earliest themes to emerge; based in north-west Asia Minor, closest to Consta...
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Caesaropapism: system whereby the monarch exercised unfettered control over the church in his dom...
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Turkmen (Turkoman, Turcoman): Turkish nomadic tribesmen from Central Asia who streamed into Anato...
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Monothelitism: (from monos and thelein ‘to will’) doctrine recognising the existence of one ‘will...
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tribunus (s.), tribuni (pl.): term for indigenous local rulers in southern Italy, which fell out ...
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Kapnikon: Tax on “hearths” or households, introduced probably during the later 7th or 8th century.
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Ecumenical councils: (from oikoumenikos, ‘worldwide’) conferences of the bishops of the whole chu...
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Thelematarioi: “Volunteers,” soldiers/watchmen who served on the basis of grants of land given by...
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Ecloga: “Selections” from Roman law, interpreted in the light of its own time and codifi ed as a ...
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despot (despot ¯ es) ‘lord, master’: High imperial title in the Palaiologan period, generally res...
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Thrakesioi: one of the earliest themes, based in western Anatolia with headquarters at Chonai.
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Stratiotes: A soldier; by derivation from the 10th century a holder of “military” land, subject t...
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Synodikon: An inventory in a church or monastery that registered items donated and the commemorat...
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Thema: A “theme,” from the early 9th century the technical term for the district across which sol...
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Gastald: Lombard royal official in Italy in charge of a gastaldate, with civil and military power...
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Ducat: Two types of coin from the duchy of Venice: (1) the thirteenthand early fourteenth-century...
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Alloy containing silver and gold in a Byzantine coin.
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Boukellarioi: theme formed in the later eighth century in north-west Asia Minor, taking its name ...
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