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Greek fire: Devastating and dreaded Byzantine petroleum-based weapon; it was sticky, was ignited ...
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If you are wondering about the monument of the Hagia Sophia here are some of the facts that you n...
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Turkmen (Turkoman, Turcoman): Turkish nomadic tribesmen from Central Asia who streamed into Anato...
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Caesar: Title given to a junior emperor or – from the eleventh century onwards – to imperial rela...
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Confraternity: A group of laymen, clerics, and monks linked to monasteries and formed to honor pa...
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Gastald: Lombard royal official in Italy in charge of a gastaldate, with civil and military power...
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True Cross: wooden cross on which Christ was crucified, or fragments – relics – supposedly from it.
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Monothelitism: (from monos and thelein ‘to will’) doctrine recognising the existence of one ‘will...
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Genikon(sekreton): The general treasury and main fiscal department of government after the 7th ce...
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Despotes: High imperial title in the later Byzantine period, generally reserved for members of th...
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Nomisma: Lat. solidus, the gold coin introduced by Constantine I which remained the basis for the...
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Turmarch: commander of a tourma; senior military commander with fiscal and judicial responsibilit...
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Normans: people from north-west France, originally of Scandinavian origin; in the eleventh centur...
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Hexagram: Silver coin introduced by Heraclius, lit. “six grams,” 12 to a nomisma. Although issued...
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Ecloga: “Selections” from Roman law, interpreted in the light of its own time and codifi ed as a ...
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225 views
Kapnikon: Tax on “hearths” or households, introduced probably during the later 7th or 8th century.
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tribunus (s.), tribuni (pl.): term for indigenous local rulers in southern Italy, which fell out ...
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Opsikion: one of the earliest themes to emerge; based in north-west Asia Minor, closest to Consta...
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Iconoclasm: Rejection of the honoring of sacred images as a form of idolatry. Condemned as a here...
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Ekklesiarches: The sacristan of a church, responsible for preparing for services by setting out t...
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